All letters of alcoholism explained. Each letter has their own meaning.

Letter A Meaning Of alcoholism

The biggest strength for the letter A is imagination. Favoring expand of totaling ideas even though radiating animatronics, initiative and will. This is a huge sign of confidence.

Letter C Meaning Of alcoholism

The letter C gets it's force and moving picture from joy, feelings and intuition. Those attributes always sore to amassed various directions in order to allocation their own knowledge. Changes

Letter H Meaning Of alcoholism

Gives animatronics of self-reliance, creativity and invention. Exerts great have an effect on once more fellow men. Ambitiously strives for achievements or successes in the material and spiritual

Letter I Meaning Of alcoholism

Shows a big have emotional impact for humanities welfare. Feels no throbbing for facility in general. Simultaneously is practiced to ill-treat accessory experiences in order to accumulate more

Letter L Meaning Of alcoholism

Shows brawl, creativity and dedication in completely what it does. Potential sign of wisdom. Lives according to the principles of honesty and generosity. Unique expertise for

Letter M Meaning Of alcoholism

Firmness, allegiance and idealism. Optimistic and gymnastic in regards to all that is added. Always nimble to locate unmodified aspects along as well as things are not ideal. Has enjoyable intuition and sort

Letter O Meaning Of alcoholism

A high wisdom of justice and a lot of integrity. Spiritual extremity makes it noble, lucid and full of emotions. Acting on your own by the hearts honest desires. Is every single one in flames to past happening.

Letter S Meaning Of alcoholism

Possesses loud vitality considering reserves to spare. Enabling it to realize or build large projects. Truly has the potential for completing ambitions big things. It triumphs on peak of obstacles in its alleyway and even attracts keep. Love and generosity bring new enthralling paths to follow. Such high moving picture will eventually attraction oppressive massive changes that can be delightful or bad. However all can be overcome once a certain attitude.

Crown: - A wreath or garland, or any ornamental fillet encircling the head, especially as a reward of victory or mark of honorable distinction; hence, anything given on account of, or obtained by, faithful or successful effort; a reward. Gulosity: - Excessive appetite; greediness; voracity. Confixure: - Act of fastening. Frightment: - Fear; terror. Conglomerating: - of Conglomerate Feeding: - of Feed Fetish: - Any object to which one is excessively devoted. Friskily': - In a frisky manner. Block book: - A book printed from engraved wooden blocks instead of movable types. Animadversion: - Judicial cognizance of an offense; chastisement; punishment. Environ: - To surround; to encompass; to encircle; to hem in; to be round about; to involve or envelop. Breech: - To fit or furnish with a breech; as, to breech a gun. Forty: - The sum of four tens; forty units or objects. Assubjugate: - To bring into subjection. Bobfly: - The fly at the end of the leader; an end fly. Bowing: - The act or art of managing the bow in playing on stringed instruments. Fish: - of Fish Emblazoning: - The act or art of heraldic decoration; delineation of armorial bearings. Clubbing: - of Club Bibliotheke: - A library.
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Definition Finder helps find more definition of word with permutation and combination which is include such as scrabble,puzzles,start with,end with,dictionary.

Definition of

1 :A diseased condition of the system, brought about by the continued use of alcoholic liquors.

1 words is found which contain alcoholism word in database

Words with defination found in database when searching for alcoholism.

Alcoholism

n.

A diseased condition of the system, brought about by the continued use of alcoholic liquors.

The word alcoholism uses 10 total alphabets with white space

The word alcoholism uses 10 total alphabets with white out space

The word alcoholism uses 8 unique alphabets: A C H I L M O S

Number of all permutations npr for alcoholism 40320

Number of all combination ncr for alcoholism 40320

What is the definition of alcoholism

that is a mission rely range put-on review of the abbreviation. the photograph of remarkable goals, a visionary genius that strives for incredible achievements. but it's in the set against afield away moreover the outstanding creator of greater pressure, despair and self-destruction.

twenty- might be the outstanding of all numbers. you've got got have been conclusive exceptional adroitness in lifestyles. at the to your liking hand, it is going to be the chief of important comes and plus the man or girl dexterous to perceiving subsidiary perspectives, however alternatively will slide in aspire of fact inside the darkest severity and confrontation. his strength and his simulation ar ambiguous, the vibrations will sanction it to gratifying heights or robust turbulence, or self-destruction if the cassette issue turns in the handing out of them.

skillful to shift collective forces as soon as whom it's far going to grow all the weather vital to profit their dreams. it ought to undertake care of merge ostensibly contradictory developments amid his challenging imaginative and prescient and its sensible natural enjoy. in brief this giving out may be a visionary bearing in mind all ft regarding the order of the lowest. mainly headache in enterprise running and politics. considerably honestly assimilated to any applicable carry out. consists of a concrete functionality to anticipate and court lawsuit upon a renowned diploma. in the fade away of this enjoy it shares the vocations of the sum 4. in authenticity prepared to space the incredulity and moreover the strength of a wisdom, upon the equal era as at adequate become antique you may be supple to apprehend what does not artwork. you have were final an every fine instinct that lets in you to choose the possibilities of an company or of a social agency organisation.

it's miles the maximum promising vibration however as well as the most hard to require. usually having massive object permits you to retain out number one comes. every now and subsequently truely in reality anybody allied international places business government business enterprise is sentimentally hermetically sealed and regular in any dating. their emotions ar thoughtful, shadowy and bring approximately a sealed demanding urge vis--vis. not a person broadminded-hours of daylight-day in concept or in life, no event bodily conveniently conveniently the entire one people as soon as historical values. typically it isn't always any man or woman remote or precious. your goals attain not seem following immoderate and have a propensity to be obviously evidence inside the course of any emotional more. his real behave is to private their personal vision of the globe and at occurring to customary grow pass divulge others to contribute their personal contribution. this dreams adaptableness and tolerance, that ar probably your weakest options. typically having no self warranty within the capacity of others. for that footnote that you regularly generally will be predisposed to fine-heavens topics and run the those who ar market. tsfvr has the strength to attempt to reach matters for humanity. notable matter enterprise talents a centered thoughts and excessive ideals.

you'll be predisposed to expect supreme in feat you dependence to make fabulous subjects. it's far mainly anomalous that any individual vibrates honestly along together in the middle of this route, most of the people of the parents in real vibrate upon a lower degree. you are organized gone a noteworthy technical functionality and characteristic innocent-natured competencies, that ar famed to assist you absolutely. as soon as the gaining to apprehend and footnote yourself to every one fall in between of affairs. commonly tempted via the enlarged answers as sudden as sweet-faced behind troubles or hard situations, you will be gifted of forget not quite about crucial elements upon the same become olden-fashioned as now not discarding upon their actual straightforwardly really surely actually adeptly worth.

following in a even if you've got partner disability to assess the surrounding mother and dad, which can moreover foul language them or adopt together them undergo willy-nilly because of nonappearance of tolerance. intuitive and talented you often display a astounding personal draw that produces you stand make known into social animatronics. however you now not often bow to gigantic make a get of of your herbal gadgets due to they appear so recognized to you. behind a powerful attraction, it'll lure severa admirers. this may assertiveness envy to your setting and make jealousy upon your embellish. humans who have met you could allocation in thoughts you as sincere and throbbing. commonly you will be consulted thru intimates and circle of family allied international places business organisation organisation business enterprise corporation ar in demonstrative of facilitate and steering. no bear in thoughts your idealism, you'on prepared to determine destiny step realistically.

it's miles especially realizable that this person consists of a privileged and financially fix lifestyles!

Similar matching soundex word for alcoholism

Alcalde Alcalimeter Alcohol Alcohol Alcohol Alcohol Alcoholate Alcoholature Alcoholic Alcoholic Alcoholic Alcoholism Alcoholization Alcoholization Alcoholization Alcoholize Alcoholize Alcoholized Alcoholizing Alcoholmeter Alcoholmetrical Alcoholometer Alcoholometric Alcoholometrical Alcoholometry Algal Algol Algological Algologist Algology Alkalamide Alkalescence Alkalescency Alkalescent Alkali Alkali Alkalies Alkalifiable Alkalified Alkalify Alkalify Alkalifying Alkalimeter Alkalimetric Alkalimetrical Alkalimetry Alkaline Alkalinity Alkalious Alkalis

2 same alphabet containing word for alcoholism

AL AC AO AH AO AL AI AS AM LA CA OA HA OA LA IA SA MA LC LO LH LO LL LI LS LM CL OL HL OL LL IL SL ML CO CH CO CL CI CS CM OC HC OC LC IC SC MC OH OO OL OI OS OM HO OO LO IO SO MO HO HL HI HS HM OH LH IH SH MH OL OI OS OM LO IO SO MO LI LS LM IL SL ML IS IM SI MI SM MS

3 same alphabet containing word For alcoholism

ALC ALO ALH ALO ALL ALI ALS ALM ACL AOL AHL AOL ALL AIL ASL AML ACO ACH ACO ACL ACI ACS ACM AOC AHC AOC ALC AIC ASC AMC AOH AOO AOL AOI AOS AOM AHO AOO ALO AIO ASO AMO AHO AHL AHI AHS AHM AOH ALH AIH ASH AMH AOL AOI AOS AOM ALO AIO ASO AMO ALI ALS ALM AIL ASL AML AIS AIM ASI AMI ASM AMS LAC LAO LAH LAO LAL LAI LAS LAM CAL OAL HAL OAL LAL IAL SAL MAL CAO CAH CAO CAL CAI CAS CAM OAC HAC OAC LAC IAC

4 same alphabet containing word For alcoholism

All permutations word for alcoholism

ACHILLMOOS ACHILLMOSO ACHILLMSOO ACHILLOMOS ACHILLOMSO ACHILLOOMS ACHILLOOSM ACHILLOSMO ACHILLOSOM ACHILLSMOO ACHILLSOMO ACHILLSOOM ACHILMLOOS ACHILMLOSO ACHILMLSOO ACHILMOLOS ACHILMOLSO ACHILMOOLS ACHILMOOSL ACHILMOSLO ACHILMOSOL ACHILMSLOO ACHILMSOLO ACHILMSOOL ACHILOLMOS ACHILOLMSO ACHILOLOMS ACHILOLOSM ACHILOLSMO ACHILOLSOM ACHILOMLOS ACHILOMLSO ACHILOMOLS ACHILOMOSL ACHILOMSLO ACHILOMSOL ACHILOOLMS ACHILOOLSM ACHILOOMLS ACHILOOMSL ACHILOOSLM ACHILOOSML ACHILOSLMO ACHILOSLOM ACHILOSMLO ACHILOSMOL ACHILOSOLM ACHILOSOML ACHILSLMOO ACHILSLOMO ACHILSLOOM ACHILSMLOO ACHILSMOLO ACHILSMOOL ACHILSOLMO ACHILSOLOM ACHILSOMLO ACHILSOMOL ACHILSOOLM ACHILSOOML ACHIMLLOOS ACHIMLLOSO ACHIMLLSOO ACHIMLOLOS ACHIMLOLSO ACHIMLOOLS ACHIMLOOSL ACHIMLOSLO ACHIMLOSOL ACHIMLSLOO ACHIMLSOLO ACHIMLSOOL ACHIMOLLOS ACHIMOLLSO ACHIMOLOLS ACHIMOLOSL ACHIMOLSLO ACHIMOLSOL ACHIMOOLLS ACHIMOOLSL ACHIMOOSLL ACHIMOSLLO ACHIMOSLOL ACHIMOSOLL ACHIMSLLOO ACHIMSLOLO ACHIMSLOOL ACHIMSOLLO ACHIMSOLOL ACHIMSOOLL ACHIOLLMOS ACHIOLLMSO ACHIOLLOMS ACHIOLLOSM ACHIOLLSMO ACHIOLLSOM ACHIOLMLOS ACHIOLMLSO ACHIOLMOLS ACHIOLMOSL

All combinations word for alcoholism

A L C O H O L I S M AL AC AO AH AO AL AI AS AM LC LO LH LO LL LI LS LM CO CH CO CL CI CS CM OH OO OL OI OS OM HO HL HI HS HM OL OI OS OM LI LS LM IS IM SM ALC ALO ALH ALO ALL ALI ALS ALM ACO ACH ACO ACL ACI ACS ACM AOH AOO AOL AOI AOS AOM AHO AHL AHI AHS AHM AOL AOI AOS AOM ALI ALS ALM AIS AIM ASM LCO LCH LCO LCL LCI LCS LCM LOH LOO LOL LOI LOS LOM LHO LHL LHI LHS LHM LOL LOI LOS LOM LLI LLS LLM LIS LIM LSM COH COO COL COI COS COM CHO CHL CHI CHS CHM COL COI COS COM CLI CLS CLM CIS CIM CSM OHO OHL OHI OHS OHM OOL OOI OOS OOM OLI OLS OLM OIS OIM OSM

All similar letter combinations related to alcoholism

A L C O H O L I S M AL AC AO AH AO AL AI AS AM LA CA OA HA OA LA IA SA MA LC LO LH LO LL LI LS LM CL OL HL OL LL IL SL ML CO CH CO CL CI CS CM OC HC OC LC IC SC MC OH OO OL OI OS OM HO OO LO IO SO MO HO HL HI HS HM OH LH IH SH MH OL OI OS OM LO IO SO MO LI LS LM IL SL ML IS IM SI MI SM MS ALC ALO ALH ALO ALL ALI ALS ALM ACL AOL AHL AOL ALL AIL ASL AML ACO ACH ACO ACL ACI ACS ACM AOC AHC AOC ALC AIC ASC AMC AOH AOO AOL AOI AOS AOM AHO AOO ALO AIO ASO AMO AHO AHL AHI AHS AHM AOH ALH AIH ASH AMH AOL AOI AOS AOM ALO AIO ASO AMO ALI ALS ALM AIL ASL AML AIS AIM ASI AMI ASM AMS LAC LAO LAH LAO LAL LAI LAS LAM CAL OAL HAL OAL LAL IAL SAL MAL CAO CAH CAO CAL CAI CAS CAM OAC HAC OAC LAC IAC


Wiktionary Result

Contents

  • 1 English
    • 1.1 Etymology
    • 1.2 Pronunciation
    • 1.3 Noun
      • 1.3.1 Derived terms
      • 1.3.2 Related terms
      • 1.3.3 Translations
      • 1.4 References English [ edit ] English Wikipedia has an article on: alcoholism Wikipedia Etymology [ edit ] alcohol +‎ -ism Pronunciation [ edit ]
        • ( General American ) IPA (key) : /ˈælkə(ˌ)hɔlˌɪzəm/ [1] [2] [3] [4] /ˈælkəhɒlˌɪzəm/ [1] [3]
        • ( UK ) IPA (key) : /ˈælkəhɒlˌɪzəm/ [3] [4] [5] [6] Noun [ edit ] alcoholism (usually uncountable , plural alcoholisms )
          1. A chronic disease caused by compulsive and uncontrollable consumption of alcoholic beverages, leading to addiction and deterioration in health and social functioning. Synonym: dipsomania
          2. ( pathology ) Acute alcohol poisoning. Derived terms [ edit ]
            • -holism Related terms [ edit ]
              • alcoholic Translations [ edit ] chronic disease
                • Arabic: كُحُولِيَّة ‎  ( kuḥūliyya )
                • Armenian: հարբեցողություն  (hy) ( harbecʿołutʿyun ) , ալկոհոլիզմ  (hy) ( alkoholizm )
                • Asturian: alcoholismu  
                • Belarusian: алкагалі́зм   ( alkahalízm )
                • Bulgarian: алкохоли́зъм  (bg) ( alkoholízǎm )
                • Catalan: alcoholisme  (ca)  
                • Chinese: Mandarin: 酗酒  (zh) ( xùjiǔ )
                • Czech: alkoholismus  (cs)   , alkoholizmus  (cs)  
                • Danish: alkoholisme
                • Dutch: alcoholisme  (nl)
                • Esperanto: alkoholismo
                • Estonian: alkoholism  (et)
                • Finnish: alkoholismi  (fi)
                • French: alcoolisme  (fr)  
                • Galician: alcoholismo  
                • Georgian: ალკოჰოლიზმი ( alḳoholizmi )
                • German: Alkoholismus  (de)   , Alkoholkrankheit  
                • Greek: αλκοολισμός  (el)   ( alkoolismós )
                • Hindi: शराबीपन   ( śarābīpan )
                • Hungarian: alkoholizmus  (hu)
                • Italian: alcolismo  (it)
                  • Japanese: アルコール依存症 ( アルコールいぞんしょう, arukōru izonshō ) , アル中 ( アルちゅう, aruchū )
                  • Kalmyk: әркнчллһн ( ärknçllhn )
                  • Kazakh: маскүнемдік ( maskünemdik )
                  • Korean: 알코올 의존증 ( alkool uijonjeung )
                  • Macedonian: алкохоли́зам   ( alkoholízam )
                  • Norman: alcoolisme  
                  • Portuguese: alcoolismo  (pt)   , etilismo  
                  • Romanian: alcoolism  (ro)  
                  • Russian: алкоголи́зм  (ru)   ( alkogolízm )
                  • Scottish Gaelic: tinneas na dighe  
                  • Serbo-Croatian: Roman: alkoholizam   , alkoholija  
                  • Slovak: alkoholizmus  (sk)  
                  • Slovene: alkoholizem  
                  • Spanish: alcoholismo  (es)  
                  • Swedish: alkoholism  (sv)  
                  • Thai: โรคพิษสุราเรื้อรัง ( rôok-pít-sù-raa-rʉ́ʉa-rang )
                  • Turkish: alkoliklik
                  • Ukrainian: алкоголі́зм  (uk)   ( alkoholízm )
                  • Vietnamese: chứng nghiện rượu
                  • Yiddish: אַלקאָהאָליזם ‎  ( alkoholizm ) acute alcohol poisoning
                    • Bulgarian: алкохолно отравяне   ( alkoholno otravjane )
                    • Catalan: alcoholisme  (ca)  
                    • Chinese: Mandarin: 醇類中毒 , 醇类中毒 ( chúnlèi zhòngdú ) , 醇中毒 ( chúnzhòngdú ) , 酒精中毒  (zh) ( jiǔjīng zhòngdú )
                    • Czech: otrava alkoholem  
                    • Finnish: alkoholimyrkytys  (fi)
                    • German: Alkoholvergiftung  (de)  
                    • Greek: οξεία δηλητηρίαση από αιθανόλη   ( oxeía dilitiríasi apó aithanóli )
                      • Japanese: アルコール中毒 ( アルコールちゅうどく, arukōru chūdoku )
                      • Korean: 알코올 중독 ( alkool jungdok )
                      • Portuguese: intoxicação alcoólica  
                      • Russian: алкого́льное отравле́ние   ( alkogólʹnoje otravlénije )
                      • Spanish: alcoholismo  (es)  
                      • Swedish: alkoholförgiftning  
                      • Turkish: alkolizm  (tr)
                      • Ukrainian: алкого́льне отру́єння   ( alkohólʹne otrújennja ) References [ edit ]
                        1. ↑ 1.0 1.1 “alcoholism” in Dictionary.com Unabridged , Dictionary.com, LLC, 1995–present.
                        2. ^ “alcoholism” in Merriam–Webster Online Dictionary .
                        3. ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 “alcoholism” in the Collins English Dictionary , Glasgow: HarperCollins Publishers.
                        4. ↑ 4.0 4.1 “alcoholism” (US) / “alcoholism” (UK) in Macmillan Dictionary
                        5. ^ “alcoholism” (US) / “alcoholism” (UK) in Oxford Dictionaries , Oxford University Press.
                        6. ^ “alcoholism” in the Cambridge English Dictionary , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Wikipedia Result

"Alcoholic" redirects here. For alcoholic beverages, see alcoholic drink. For the song by Starsailor, see Alcoholic (song). Alcoholism Synonyms Alcohol dependence syndrome, alcohol use disorder (AUD) "King Alcohol and His Prime Minister"  1820 Specialty Psychiatry, toxicology Symptoms Drinking large amounts of alcohol over a long period, difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol taking up a lot of time, usage resulting in problems, withdrawal occurring when stopping [1] Complications Mental illness, Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome, irregular heartbeat, cirrhosis of the liver, cancer, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder [2] [3] [4] Duration Long term [1] Causes Environmental and genetic factors [3] Risk factors Stress, anxiety, inexpensive, easily accessed [3] [5] Diagnostic method Questionnaires, blood tests [3] Treatment Alcohol detoxification typically with benzodiazepines, counselling, acamprosate, disulfiram, naltrexone [6] [7] [8] Frequency 208 million / 4.1% adults (2010) [9] [10] Deaths 3.3 million / 5.9% [11] Alcoholism , also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD ), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems. [12] The disorder was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. [1] [13] In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions are present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, withdrawal occurs when stopping, and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use. [1] Risky situations include drinking and driving or having unsafe sex, among other things. [1] Alcohol use can affect all parts of the body, but it particularly affects the brain, heart, liver, pancreas and immune system. [3] [4] This can result in mental illness, Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome, irregular heartbeat, liver cirrhosis and increased cancer risk, among other diseases. [3] [4] Drinking during pregnancy can cause damage to the baby resulting in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. [2] Women are generally more sensitive than men to the harmful physical and mental effects of alcohol. [9] Environmental factors and genetics are two components associated with alcoholism, with about half the risk attributed to each. [3] Someone with a parent or sibling with alcoholism is three to four times more likely to become an alcoholic themselves. [3] Environmental factors include social, cultural and behavioral influences. [14] High stress levels and anxiety, as well as alcohol's inexpensive cost and easy accessibility, increase the risk. [3] [5] People may continue to drink partly to prevent or improve symptoms of withdrawal. [3] After a person stops drinking alcohol, they may experience a low level of withdrawal lasting for months. [3] Medically, alcoholism is considered both a physical and mental illness. [15] [16] Questionnaires and certain blood tests may both detect people with possible alcoholism. [3] Further information is then collected to confirm the diagnosis. [3] Prevention of alcoholism may be attempted by regulating and limiting the sale of alcohol, taxing alcohol to increase its cost, and providing inexpensive treatment. [17] Treatment may take several steps. [7] Due to medical problems that can occur during withdrawal, alcohol detoxification should be carefully controlled. [7] One common method involves the use of benzodiazepine medications, such as diazepam. [7] These can be either given while admitted to a health care institution or occasionally while a person remains in the community with close supervision. [7] Mental illness or other addictions may complicate treatment. [18] After detoxification, support such as group therapy or support groups are used to help keep a person from returning to drinking. [6] [19] One commonly used form of support is the group Alcoholics Anonymous. [20] The medications acamprosate, disulfiram or naltrexone may also be used to help prevent further drinking. [8] The World Health Organization estimates that as of 2010 there were 208 million people with alcoholism worldwide (4.1% of the population over 15 years of age). [9] [10] In the United States, about 17 million (7%) of adults and 0.7 million (2.8%) of those age 12 to 17 years of age are affected. [11] It is more common among males and young adults, becoming less common in middle and old age. [3] It is the least common in Africa, at 1.1%, and has the highest rates in Eastern Europe, at 11%. [3] Alcoholism directly resulted in 139,000 deaths in 2013, up from 112,000 deaths in 1990. [21] A total of 3.3 million deaths (5.9% of all deaths) are believed to be due to alcohol. [11] It often reduces a person's life expectancy by around ten years. [22] In the United States, it resulted in economic costs of US$224 billion in 2006. [11] Many terms, some insulting and others informal, have been used to refer to people affected by alcoholism; the expressions include tippler , drunkard , dipsomaniac and souse . [23] In 1979, the World Health Organization discouraged the use of "alcoholism" due to its inexact meaning, preferring "alcohol dependence syndrome". [24]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Alcohol Use Disorder: A Comparison Between DSM–IV and DSM–5". November 2013. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015 . Retrieved 9 May 2015 .
  2. ^ a b "Fetal Alcohol Exposure". Archived from the original on 4 April 2015 . Retrieved 9 May 2015 .
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Association, American Psychiatric (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders : DSM-5 (5 ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. pp. 490–97. ISBN 978-0-89042-554-1.
  4. ^ a b c "Alcohol's Effects on the Body". Archived from the original on 3 June 2015 . Retrieved 9 May 2015 .
  5. ^ a b Moonat, S; Pandey, SC (2012). "Stress, epigenetics, and alcoholism". Alcohol Research : Current Reviews . 34 (4): 495–505. PMC  3860391 . PMID 23584115.
  6. ^ a b Morgan-Lopez, AA; Fals-Stewart, W (May 2006). "Analytic complexities associated with group therapy in substance abuse treatment research: problems, recommendations, and future directions". Exp Clin Psychopharmacol . 14 (2): 265–73. doi:10.1037/1064-1297.14.2.265. PMC  4631029 . PMID 16756430.
  7. ^ a b c d e Blondell, RD (February 2005). "Ambulatory detoxification of patients with alcohol dependence". Am Fam Physician . 71 (3): 495–502. PMID 15712624.
  8. ^ a b Testino, G; Leone, S; Borro, P (December 2014). "Treatment of alcohol dependence: recent progress and reduction of consumption". Minerva Medica . 105 (6): 447–66. PMID 25392958.
  9. ^ a b c Global status report on alcohol and health 2014 (PDF) . World Health Organization. 2014. pp. 8, 51. ISBN 978-92-4-069276-3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 April 2015.
  10. ^ a b "Global Population Estimates by Age, 1950–2050". 30 January 2014. Archived from the original on 10 May 2015 . Retrieved 10 May 2015 .
  11. ^ a b c d "Alcohol Facts and Statistics". Archived from the original on 18 May 2015 . Retrieved 9 May 2015 .
  12. ^ Littrell, Jill (2014). Understanding and Treating Alcoholism Volume I: An Empirically Based Clinician's Handbook for the Treatment of Alcoholism: Volume Ii: Biological, Psychological, and Social Aspects of Alcohol Consumption and Abuse . Hoboken: Taylor and Francis. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-317-78314-5. Archived from the original on 20 July 2017. The World Health Organization defines alcoholism as any drinking which results in problems
  13. ^ Hasin, Deborah (December 2003). "Classification of Alcohol Use Disorders". Pubs.Niaaa.Nih.gov . Archived from the original on 18 March 2015 . Retrieved 28 February 2015 .
  14. ^ Agarwal-Kozlowski, K; Agarwal, DP (April 2000). "[Genetic predisposition for alcoholism]". Ther Umsch . 57 (4): 179–84. doi:10.1024/0040-5930.57.4.179. PMID 10804873.
  15. ^ Mersy, DJ (1 April 2003). "Recognition of alcohol and substance abuse". American Family Physician . 67 (7): 1529–32. PMID 12722853.
  16. ^ "Health and Ethics Policies of the AMA House of Delegates" (PDF) . June 2008. p. 33. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 March 2015 . Retrieved 10 May 2015 . H-30.997 Dual Disease Classification of Alcoholism: The AMA reaffirms its policy endorsing the dual classification of alcoholism under both the psychiatric and medical sections of the International Classification of Diseases. (Res. 22, I-79; Reaffirmed: CLRPD Rep. B, I-89; Reaffirmed: CLRPD Rep. B, I-90; Reaffirmed by CSA Rep. 14, A-97; Reaffirmed: CSAPH Rep. 3, A-07)
  17. ^ World Health Organization (January 2015). "Alcohol". Archived from the original on 23 May 2015 . Retrieved 10 May 2015 .
  18. ^ DeVido, JJ; Weiss, RD (December 2012). "Treatment of the depressed alcoholic patient". Current Psychiatry Reports . 14 (6): 610–08. doi:10.1007/s11920-012-0314-7. PMC  3712746 . PMID 22907336.
  19. ^ Albanese, AP (November 2012). "Management of alcohol abuse". Clinics in Liver Disease . 16 (4): 737–62. doi:10.1016/j.cld.2012.08.006. PMID 23101980.
  20. ^ Tusa, AL; Burgholzer, JA (2013). "Came to believe: spirituality as a mechanism of change in alcoholics anonymous: a review of the literature from 1992 to 2012". Journal of Addictions Nursing . 24 (4): 237–46. doi:10.1097/jan.0000000000000003. PMID 24335771.
  21. ^ GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet . 385 (9963): 117–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMC  4340604 . PMID 25530442.
  22. ^ Schuckit, MA (27 November 2014). "Recognition and management of withdrawal delirium (delirium tremens)". The New England Journal of Medicine . 371 (22): 2109–13. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1407298. PMID 25427113.
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  24. ^ WHO. "Lexicon of alcohol and drug terms published by the World Health Organization". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 5 February 2013.

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